Biospeleology is a scientific branch that studies the underground habitats and organisms and their mutual relationships. The word ‘biospeleology’ comes from three words of Greek origin:
BIOS + SPELEOS + LOGOS = life + cavity + science
Biospeleology is a synthetic science, which is primarily a combination of two basic scientific disciplines: biology and speleology. Researchers need basic knowledge of geomorphology, tectonics, hydrology, cave climate as well as ecology, taxonomy, physiology and ethology of cave organisms. During field research, biospeleologists use speleological, rock-climbing and diving techniques and equipment to reach bottoms of deep pits and ends of long cave channels.
Good knowledge of methods for sampling of living organisms, sediments, detritus and water are necessary for biospeleological explorations. Cave climate parameters are also often measured. Cave organisms, which are usually very small, are photographed and filmed with special equipment and techniques. Accordingly, one of the prerequisites of successful biospeleological research is interdisciplinarity.